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History of Northern Cyprus

تاریخچه کشور قبرس شمالی

Due to its wonderful and strategic location, Northern Cyprus has been occupied by various empires throughout history, including the Hittites, Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Ottomans, Arabs, and England.

Until 1570, Cyprus was ruled by Europeans and they were benefiting from the island’s resources and location. After 1570 till 1878, the Ottoman Empire occupied Cyprus during an attack for about three hundred years and took over its sovereignty.

Since 1878, the Ottoman Empire has leased Cyprus to the British in exchange for their support against Russian threats. When the World War begins, England completely took over Cyprus, there are various stories regarding how the English took over. The island belonged to the British for about 100 years until when the indigenous people clashed with the British government in 1960 and Cyprus became fully independent for the first time in history.

Meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire collapsed in 1923 and the Republic of Turkey was formed.

Northern Cyprus, has been under the British flag for many years, and considering the English-speaking Turkish Cypriots and the driving culture, the country is still completely influenced by the English culture, and their traditions have been integrated with the British traditions.

The independent government of Cyprus declared its existence in 1960 based on the participation of the Turkish and Greek communities in administration of the affairs, and Britain, Greece and Turkey also guaranteed the sovereignty of the Cyprus government and took steps towards the development of Cyprus.

An agreement was signed by the leaders of the three countries of England, Greece and Turkey, and the leaders of the two different parts of Cyprus, on February 11, according to which the issues of the island were divided 7 to 3 between the Greeks and the Turks, and the tasks were divided.

Finally, with the intensification of the conflicts between the Greeks and the Turks, in 1964 the United Nations peacekeeping soldiers were assigned a mission to establish security and peace on this island. Therefore, they came to this island and they have guarded the security and peace in this island since then. They always try to bring peace to this country and their services are very essential.

In 1974, the government of Archbishop Makarios III, the president of Cyprus at the time, was overthrown in a coup d’état instigated by the Greek military government, and Turkey, having a position as one of the guarantors of the sovereignty of Cyprus, stationed its army units in the north part of this land which practically divided the island into two northern and southern parts.

Since the code name of the operation of the Turkish army in Cyprus was Attila, the border line that was created after this operation was known as the Attila Line or the Green Line.

The two parts of Cyprus remained separated, and in 2004, the Republic of Southern Cyprus joined the European Union and conducted the rest of its economic and political activities according to the rules of the European Union.

In 2004, a referendum was held in regards to the peace plan by Kofi Annan, the former Secretary General of the United Nations, in which 65% of the people of the Turkish region voted in favor and 76% of the people of the Greek region voted against this plan. The result of this referendum created a gap in the global sanctions against the Turkish Cypriot part and improved the position of this part in the international arena.


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